Chlamydien bei Katzen

Wenn sich die eigene Katze auffällig benimmt oder an diffusen Symptomen erkrankt ist, sollte man möglichst schnell zum Tierarzt gehen, um die Diagnose zu sichern. Eine Krankheit, die vor allem Züchtern zu schaffen macht und auf jeden Fall behandelt werden muss, sind Chlamydien.

Welche Risiken bestehen für den Menschen?

Auch für den Menschen können Chlamydien gefährlich werden; es muss also auf jeden Fall ernst mit der Krankheit umgegangen werden. Äußerste Hygiene und Schutzmaßnahmen sind das A und O. Der Krankheitsverlauf beim Menschen ist nicht immer gleich – meistens beginnt er mit grippeähnlichen Symptomen wie Kopfschmerzen, Fieber und Mattigkeit, die sich zu einer Lungenentzündung entwickeln können. Erst nach etwa 5 Tagen verlangsamt sich dann der Herzschlag und beim Röntgen der Lunge kann man den charakteristischen Chlamydien-Befund sehen. Weitere Symptome sind Schlaflosigkeit, Benommenheit und Unruhe. Nach ca. 3 Wochen kommt es normalerweise zur Herzmuskelschädigung. Die Prognose für eine Heilung ist nicht gut.

Wie behandelt man Chlamydien?

Die Behandlung ist sehr langwierig und kann bis zu sechs Monaten dauern. Der Tierarzt wird der Katze hoch dosierte Antibiotika geben, außerdem Mittel, die das Immunsystem stärken. Gegen den Ausfluss erhält die Katze Augensalbe und Nasensalbe. Geht man früh genug zum Tierarzt, sind die Heilungsaussichten gut. Wichtig ist, die Behandlung noch mindestens zwei Wochen nach Abklingen der Symptome weiter zu führen, da Chlamydien noch 50 Tage später nachweisbar sind. Es besteht auch dann noch immer eine Ansteckungsgefahr – bei mehreren Katzen ist also Vorsicht geboten. Wichtig ist, dass die Behandlung konsequent und so lange es der Tierarzt empfiehlt, durchgeführt wird.
Gegen Chlamydien gibt es mittlerweile auch einen Impfstoff, dieser bietet aber keinen hundertprozentigen Schutz. Dennoch sollte bei Katzenzüchtern oder Tierhaltern mit Vögeln und Katzen über eine Impfung der Tiere nachgedacht werden.

Wie erkennt man Chlamydien?

Leider werden Chlamydien oft zu spät erkannt oder falsch diagnostiziert, weil sie mit anderen, harmlosen Krankheiten verwechselt werden. Nach einer Inkubationszeit von fünf bis zehn Tagen leidet die Katze bei Chlamydien unter einer meist einseitigen Bindehautentzündung und flüssigem, später auch dickem, Ausfluss am Auge, der eitern kann. Zeitgleich ist die Bindehaut des Auges geschwollen und rot. Nach ca. einer Woche beginnt meist auch das zweite Auge mit den gleichen Symptomen. Möglich ist auch der Ausbruch mit Fieber- hier werden dann die Luftwege der Katze befallen und das Tier atmet nur noch schwer oder ungleichmäßig. An Chlamydien erkrankte Katzen können Fieberschübe bis 40 °C haben, leiden zudem an Schnupfen, niesen und husten oft. Viele Tierhalter, aber auch manche Ärzte, verwechseln deshalb die Krankheit häufig mit Katzenschnupfen. Verläuft die Krankheit schwer, kann es auch zu einer Lungen- oder zu einer Bauchfellentzündung kommen. Erkennt man auch nur erste Anzeichen dieser Symptome bei der eigenen Katze, muss sofort gehandelt werden. Bei Tieren mit schwachem Immunsystem können Chlamydien innerhalb kürzester Zeit zum Tode führen.

Was sind Chlamydien?

Chlamydien sind Bakterien, die sowohl Menschen als auch Tiere befallen können. Bei 130 verschiedenen Vogelarten sind Chlamydien bereits aufgetreten, der Erreger kommt aber auch bei Säugetieren vor. So zeigten Untersuchungen in Deutschland, dass bereits 32 % der untersuchten Katzen Antikörper gegen Chlamydia psittaci in sich trugen. Eine mit Chlamydien infizierte Katze muss aber nicht zwangsläufig erkranken – die Tiere dienen dann lediglich als Überträger. Chlamydien befallen dabei vorwiegend die Schleimhäute der Luftwege, als auch Atemwege und die Augen. Es handelt sich um sehr kleine Bakterien, die keinen eigenen Stoffwechsel haben. Sie können sich aus diesem Grund nur in Zellen höherer Organismen, wie z. B. der Katzen, vermehren. Die Erkrankung ist auch bekannt unter dem Namen ,,Papageienkrankheit". Sie wird durch die Einatmung von Kot übertragen, der Erreger beinhaltet, also z. B. durch die Ausscheidungen von Papageien oder Wellensittichen. Dabei müssen die übertragenden Tiere nicht selber erkrankt sein. Chlamydien findet man häufig bei jungen Tieren und in Zuchten.

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